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Borderline personality disorder

 

Borderline disorder or also called borderline personality disorder is, like all personality disorders , a set of alterations in cognitive and developmental processes that are not considered normal; These alterations affect the emotional, affective and relationship between individuals.

This disorder is characterized mainly by a general pattern of emotional instability, dichotomous thinking, and generalized instability in moods ; which leads people who suffer from it to have behavioral problems, low self-esteem and personal relationships destined to be chaotic.

This is one of the most common personality disorders and is within group B of personality disorders (the so-called “dramatic-emotional” disorders). The same begins to be seen notoriously at the beginning of adolescence.

Causes of borderline personality disorder

As with the vast majority of personality disorders, the specific causes of borderline personality disorder are still unknown and not fully understood. It is estimated that they can be generated by a combination of biopsychosocial factors, among which stand out: environmental factors, biological factors -genetic or brain abnormalities-, and psychological.

Environmental factors: Among environmental factors, traumatic events or situations experienced by an individual can be found , for example having been victims of sexual abuse or victims of violence. Traumatic events can generate certain types of psychological disorders when the defense mechanisms that are responsible for preserving mental health function inadequately.

Biological factors: Biological factors play a very important role in the development of this disorder, since one of the most common causes that is believed to originate this disorder is genetics .

If we are part of a family where a relative of direct blood line – father or mother – suffers from this psychopathology, we can predict that we will be prone to present the same psychological condition. It can also occur with more indirect relatives – such as uncles or grandparents.

Brain failures or abnormalities can also be the cause of borderline personality disorder. Studies show that people with this disorder may have structural and functional changes in certain areas of the brain involved in emotional regulation, impulse control, and aggression control. Some of the brain abnormalities may be associated with the incorrect functioning of a neurotransmitter responsible for regulating mood states ( serotonin ).

Psychological factors:  One of the most influential risk factors for this disorder is personality. Some personality traits of the individual that include impulsivity and aggression can play a fundamental role in the development of borderline disorder.

The disturbing events of childhood , such as hostile conflicts or unstable family relationships are pillars that play a fundamental role in the development of an individual, because as Freud said  in his theory of psychoanalysis, the key to reveal the disorders of the subject, is found in the childhood of the same. Therefore, if these events generated disturbing or traumatic experiences in the subject, they can be seen as one of the possible psychological causes that originate borderline personality disorder.

Characteristics of borderline personality disorder

People with borderline or borderline personality disorder tend to present sudden and dramatic emotional changes , which can start from despair, to having attacks of anger, anxiety , depression in a matter of minutes and then reaching a state of calm . These emotional changes often occur in their daily life as they have a very weak and changing personality , which makes their relationships not only personal but also in work situations become catastrophic and extremely toxic .

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Another characteristic of people with this type of disorder is that they need to be constantly changing , be it from their place of residence, appearance, to have a sudden change in values, changes in goals in their life and personal and professional aspirations. These people tend to get bored easily, so these changes become an inevitable habit, which becomes routine in their life.

Characteristic signs of borderline personality disorder

  • Instability in personal relationships
  • Instability in the image of themselves (they go from believing themselves to be the best to the most unfortunate).
  • Manipulation and emotional blackmail
  • Instability in affectivity (they go from cold to affectionate)
  • Impulsiveness (in at least two areas that are potentially harmful to themselves, such as: overspending, sex, substance abuse, reckless driving, binge eating)
  • Very close ties that turn into terrible hatred if they feel abandoned
  • Idealizes or demonizes others
  • Recurring self-elimination attempts or threats (not thoughtful or planned but impulsive)
  • Low self-esteem
  • Mood disorder (instability, reactivity)
  • Emotional insecurity
  • Chronic feeling of emptiness (which is often filled with things such as: food, shopping, physical pain)
  • Low tolerance for frustration
  • Difficulty controlling rabies
  • Depression
  • Transient paranoid ideas (related to stress )
  • Anger-related disorders
  • Severe dissociative symptoms
  • Lack of self-confidence
  • Frenzied efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment (they may believe it is because they are bad)
  • Anxiety disorders
  • Automutilaciones
  • Need to be accompanied by other people

Uncommon signs of borderline personality disorder

Borderline Personality Disorder Treatments

It is good to realize if we are in front of a person with this type of disorder, since sometimes and if necessary, they will need therapeutic help and it is important to let them know; since people with this disorder rarely realize that they have it, and the first step to improve and begin to treat it is acceptance itself.

As for most personality disorders, psychotherapy is one of the most widely used treatments. With psychotherapy, the subject, together with his therapist, will be able to reach the trigger point of said disorder, in addition to providing him with the necessary tools to be able to face his condition and change negative and unhealthy habits for mental health in his life.

Medication may be necessary according to the severity of the clinical picture. In cases where the patient manifests depression, aggressiveness or inappropriate and dangerous behaviors for himself or his environment, psychiatric intervention and hospitalization may be necessary in addition to medication.

 

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Hello Readers, I am Nikki Bella a Psychology student. I have always been concerned about human behavior and the mental processes that lead us to act and think the way we do. My collaboration as an editor in the psychology area of ​​Well Being Pole has allowed me to investigate further and expand my knowledge in the field of mental health; I have also acquired great knowledge about physical health and well-being, two fundamental bases that are directly related and are part of all mental health.

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