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Cerebral cortex


The human brain besides being one of the most important organs of the human body; it is also the most complex. It is protected by the skull and is made up of three main structures: the cerebellum, the brain stem, and the cerebral cortex.

The main structures of the brain

The cerebellum is the brain structure that is associated with the regulation and coordination of movement, posture and balance. Its name cerebellum or “small brain” is due to its similar structure to the brain, since it has two hemispheres and a folded cortex.

The cerebellum represents approximately 10% of the total size of the brain, but it has more than 50% of the total number of brain neurons. In addition to playing an essential role in motor control, it also plays an important role in certain cognitive functions, including speech.

The brainstem lies below the limbic system and includes the midbrain, pons, and medulla. This structure acts as a relay center connecting the cortex and cerebellum to the spinal cord and is responsible for basic life functions such as breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure.

Reiterating what has been said above, the brain stem is made up of the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla. The midbrain  controls the visual and auditory systems, as well as eye movement; the cord is located in the lower part of the brainstem, above the spinal cord and controls some of the vital autonomic functions; The pons connects the medulla to the cerebellum and plays an important role in several autonomous functions, such as stimulating respiration and controlling sleep cycles .

The cerebral cortex  is the largest brain structure and is where all distinctively human traits originate including increased human thinking, language and consciousness, the ability to think, reason, imitate, and imagine.

The cerebral cortex

The cerebral cortex, also called “gray matter” , is one of the most important parts of our brain, since this is what gives the individual the quality of  human . Basically the cerebral cortex are  grouped cells and neurons that send impulses and make our nervous system work .

The cerebral cortex is divided into two hemispheres : the left and the right hemisphere. The right side of the brain is the one that provides us with the artistic and emotional part , unlike the left side that provides us with the logical and rational part. Between the two hemispheres is a band of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum . The corpus callosum helps the two hemispheres to communicate with each other.

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This large portion of the brain is also divided into four brain lobes: frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe.

The frontal lobe is associated with reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, and problem solving; the parietal lobe is associated with movement, orientation, recognition, and perception of stimuli; the occipital lobe is associated with visual processing; and the temporal lobe is associated with the perception and recognition of auditory stimuli, memory and speech.

Functions of the cerebral cortex

  • Initiation of voluntary movements, since it has neurons that project directly to the spinal cord to activate somatic motor neurons.
  • It receives information from the tactile and deep conscious sensitivity of the body.
  • It receives information from visual stimuli because it has a retinotopic representation.
  • Receive auditory information with a tonotopic representation.
  • Participates in the detection of sound qualities (intensity and tone).
  • Coordination of complex movements.
  • Voluntary movement planning occurs.
  • The consequences of actions to be carried out are weighed and the appropriate one is selected from among many motor responses.
  • Internal and external sensory information is integrated.
  • Projects to the primary motor area.
  • Complex processing of visual information.
  • Problem solving, complex emotions and thoughts.
  • Processing and integration of multisensory information (somatosensory, hearing and vision).
  • Complex perceptions are formed.
  • Participate in motivation , emotions and memory .
  • It receives projections from higher-level sensory areas and limbic structures and sends projections to other regions such as the prefrontal cortex.
  • This pathway allows emotions to affect motor planning.


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Hello Readers, I am Nikki Bella a Psychology student. I have always been concerned about human behavior and the mental processes that lead us to act and think the way we do. My collaboration as an editor in the psychology area of ​​Well Being Pole has allowed me to investigate further and expand my knowledge in the field of mental health; I have also acquired great knowledge about physical health and well-being, two fundamental bases that are directly related and are part of all mental health.

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