The amount of urine that you evacuate is decisive to measure how your body is , the levels of hydration and general state of health. Therefore, this time we will talk about diuresis . Do you know what it is about? Do you know the normal values that your urine should have? To answer this and many other questions, do not stop reading until the end of the article, you will be surprised.
What is diuresis and definition
You could already perceive that the main topic is urine, but specifically, we can determine that diuresis is the parameter that allows us to measure the amount of urine in a given period of time , which is generally taken into account during a day, that is, 24 hours.
However, in some cases with patients in situations that require special care, this measurement must be carried out every hour. To do this, it is necessary to incorporate a probe , which is translated into the evacuation of urine through a bag or container that measures the amount of liquid in milliliters. This container also has a tap, which after being closed for an hour, is opened to allow the urine to descend and proceed to the corresponding measurement.
It is important to clarify that the action of urinating must occur at least 5 times a day to determine that everything is going well, however this may vary according to the type of diet, fluid intake or well-being of the patient. So, an average adult, usually discards for 24 hours, an amount that ranges between 1,000 and 1,500 milliliters .
It is also decisive not only to urinate, but to clarify the normality of the urine according to its color, since normally this liquid should be transparent or very light yellow, characteristic of urine . If not, you could be experiencing hydration problems, urinary tract infections, and other complications of the urinary tract or organisms.
What can affect urination?
As we have already clarified, whether or not you are going to dispose of toxins and bacteria through urine will depend on some factors, such as their quantity or color . So that you have a much clearer idea and are alert to any complications, detail those factors below:
Human growth or development
Urinary function and the amount of urination diversify throughout the years of life, since when you are a baby you do not have a voluntary control to urinate , but after 18 or 24 months, where the natural habit is acquired. Something similar happens with the elderly, who urinate more frequently at night since they have lost the ability to control the urge to urinate due to the loss of strength in their bladder.
This has to do directly with limiting the urge to urinate completely, since due to lack of time, privacy or other reasons, you could stop emptying the urine and generate urinary retention by not relaxing the perineal and abdominal muscles, as well as the external sphincter of the urethra, organisms that allow fluid to escape without problems.
Food intake and fluid intake
The human body has the ability to maintain a healthy balance between the fluid that is consumed and that which is subsequently eliminated through urine. When fluid levels are increased, specifically water, the amount of fluid that must be discharged from the body automatically increases. Some of the foods and fluids that increase urine production include the following:
- Alcoholic drinks.
This point refers to the ability of some medications to affect the expulsion of urine, since it retains it, as with antihistamines, while others increase the amount of urine that is discarded , in the case of diuretics.
Muscle tone and activity
The lack of muscle tone can cause alterations in the contraction of the bladder muscles , muscles that are vital for the proper functioning of urination , and in the control of the external sphincter of the urethra, thus causing a failure of control in the elimination of the rust.
Some diseases tend to increase urine production in an excessive way, as if it were urinary incontinence . An example of this is diabetes insipidus, which directly affects normal urinary function in patients who suffer from it.
Surgical interventions and diagnostics
Some surgical and diagnostic procedures can alter normal urine output, as with spinal anesthesia, as it reduces sensitivity to the need to urinate ; or the case of cystoscopy, where the urethra can become inflamed and pain causing the urge to urinate is diminished.
It should be noted that normally the urination of urine at night decreases, however this could increase, making normal 8-hour sleep quality impossible . These may be any of the causes:
- Bladder or urinary tract infection.
- Consume alcoholic beverages, caffeine, or other liquids before going to bed.
- Enlargement of the prostate gland.
- Pregnancy .
- Chronic renal insufficiency.
- Heart failure.
- Elevated level of calcium in the blood.
How to measure urinary volume in 24 hours?
Normal urine values can be determined by a 24-hour urine volume test, which measures the amount of urine produced in a day . In this evaluation, the levels of creatinine, proteins and other chemicals secreted in the urine during this period are channeled.
For this urinary exam, the patient must urinate into a special container or bag each time he goes to the bathroom, only for a period of 24 hours . In this way such an analysis is carried out:
- Urinate in the toilet when you get up every morning
- Cover the container where the urine is deposited and keep it in the refrigerator or in a cold place during the collection time.
- Mark the container with the date, time of urination
You must remember that the normal range for 24-hour urine volume is 800 to 2,000 milliliters per day , hand in hand with a normal fluid intake of 2 liters per day.
What are the types of diuresis?
- Polyuria: Diuresis greater than 2.5 liters per day.
- Oliguria: Diuresis less than 600 milliliters per day.
- Anuria: No diuresis or less than 100 milliliters per day.
- Osmotic diuresis.
- Water diuresis.
It deals with the increase in urinary volume as a consequence of the elevation of the osmotic pressure of the blood plasma . In other words, more clearly, it refers to increased urination due to the presence of certain substances in the fluid filtered by the kidneys . This fluid eventually turns into urine, but some substances cause additional water to enter the urine, increasing its amount.
These fluids are called osmotic diuretics, pharmacologically inert substances that are filtered in the glomerulus and are not reabsorbed in the rest of the nephron . The main ones are: mannitol, urea, glucose and isosorbitol. For this reason, they exert their main effect in the proximal tubule, where they effectively retain water.
What are the causes of osmotic diuresis?
- High blood sugar level
- Intake of some medications.
In order to collect urine, these bags are incorporated by the hand of a catheter, probe or tube, which is connected directly to the bladder . Apart from being used for diuresis, this urine drainage bag is also used when the patient suffers from urinary incontinence, urine retention or another health problem that prevents natural and normal urination of urine.
How to use the bag?
You must remember that urine will pass through the bladder tube into the bag , so you should consider some important recommendations such as the ones you will read below:
- The bag is kept daily with the patient without it being a hindrance or making it impossible to walk normally.
- It can be hidden under a dress or pants, as it comes in a variety of size and style presentations.
- At night it is necessary to change the bag for a larger one.
- It is recommended that the bag be attached to the thigh of the leg with the help of elastic bands.
- It should always be lower than the bladder to prevent urine from returning to its source.
In addition, grooming is extremely important to keep infection free, health complications free, and put your urine bag to good use. Therefore, you cannot allow this container or its openings to touch any surface of the toilet, wall or floor; and to maintain a constant cleaning, it is recommended that the bag be emptied between 2 and 3 times a day, or when it is visualized that it is very full.
How to empty it?
- Wash your hands well.
- Keep the bag below the hip or bladder while emptying.
- Hold the bag over the toilet.
- Open the spout at the bottom of the bag and empty it into the toilet or container.
- Do not allow the bag to touch the edge of the toilet.
- Clean the spout of the bag with rubbing alcohol to kill bacteria.
- Close the spout tightly.
- Wash your hands again at the end of the process.
In case you require a change of bag, either to sleep or due to other factors, such as dirt or bad smell, you should also follow some steps. It should be noted that it is advisable that the bag be changed once or twice a month , to avoid infections.
- Disconnect the valve at the end of the tube near the bag.
- Do not allow the end of the probe to come into contact with the ground or your own hands
- Cleaning the end of the tube with antiseptic alcohol
- Wipe the opening of the clean bag with antiseptic alcohol to remove bacteria
- Connect the probe to the bag tightly
- Attach the bag to the leg, always lower than the bladder
And as we mentioned, before going to sleep it is advisable to change for a larger bag that supports a greater number of milliliters, for this it is also important to clean it every night before changing it . This is what you should do:
- Disconnect the tube from the bag.
- Connect the catheter to the larger clean bag.
- Clean the used bag with the following liquid solution: 2 parts of white vinegar and 3 parts of water. You can also include 1 tablespoon of chlorine bleach mixed with half a cup of water.
- Close the bag with the cleaning liquid and move to remove bacteria.
- Leave the liquid solution in the bag for about 20 minutes to let it work.
- Hang the bag down to dry.
When is it necessary to go to the doctor?
Before the use of a diuresis bag, it is normal that some infectious pictures of the urinary tract appear due to poor cleaning or neglect of it. Therefore, keep these warning factors or symptoms in mind to communicate with your GP or a specialist:
- Pain in the lumbar region.
- Urine with a bad smell or very strong color.
- Fever or chills
- Burning sensation or pain in the bladder or pelvis.
- Tiredness, general pain in the body and lack of concentration.
- Bag is not filling or filling is too fast.
- Rash or ulcers on the skin.
How to prevent urinary infections?
- Maintain good intimate hygiene : This applies to men and women, but especially to women, especially during the menstrual cycle. It is important that cleaning is only with water or with special soaps according to the pH of each person; It is not recommended to include scent soaps.
- Avoid humidity in the genital area : For this it is important to dry the genitals well when going to the bathroom or shower, since humidity is the main source of infections.
- Clean from front to back : When defecating, you must remember that many bacteria from the intestine accumulate in the anus, which could move towards the genitals if a correct direction is not used in cleaning.
- Consume large amounts of fluids and avoid constipation : If you take care of your body to prevent urinary incontinence, you will also be taking care of it from presenting infections in the urine, and water is an essential factor to always eliminate toxins and waste.
- Completely empty the bladder : When urinating, try to dedicate the time necessary to do so, as the storage of urine could be contagious, as well as holding the urge to urinate for very long periods of time. It is advisable to go to urinate every 3 or 4 hours.
- Urinate after sexual intercourse : Doing this will help the passage of urine through the genitals naturally clean all bacteria that may have entered the urethra.
- Wear cotton underwear and loose clothing. Tight pants and synthetic fabrics absorb moisture and therefore create a perfect environment for bacteria .
- Avoid diaphragms and spermicides.
- Stopping sexual intercourse while a UTI is known
Do not forget that urinary tract infections are one of the most common infections, especially in women, reaching infections every 6 months . But it can also attack men, teenagers and even children, regardless of age.
Hello Readers, I am Nikki Bella a Psychology student. I have always been concerned about human behavior and the mental processes that lead us to act and think the way we do. My collaboration as an editor in the psychology area of Well Being Pole has allowed me to investigate further and expand my knowledge in the field of mental health; I have also acquired great knowledge about physical health and well-being, two fundamental bases that are directly related and are part of all mental health.