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The gnosias are  conscious recognition of the outside world and one ‘s body through one or more sensory modalities . This concept is closely linked to the concept of perception since they are two moments of the same process. While in perception the discriminative level of the stimulus intervenes (characteristics of objects, space and time), in gnosias the semantic level intervenes, which is when we give it meaning, that is, we interpret the stimulus.

The essential form of perceptual activity is exploration, which is why whenever we speak of the gnosic we make intrinsic reference to movement , since the stimulus itself triggers a response that is a movement, even if it is only perceptual.

Disturbance in this process produces a learning difficulty called dysgnosia . That is, an alteration in the integration of gnosis in the absence of  mental retardation , significant sensory difficulties, dyspraxia, dysphasia or motor impairment.

What is dysgnosia?

The human brain is in charge of processing the visual world that surrounds it, including things like symbols, images and distances. Weaknesses in these brain functions, such as lack of understanding, constitute a visual processing disorder called dysgnosia.

Dysgnosia is a learning disorder that affects the understanding of the information that the subject sees, or the ability to draw and copy. Unlike agnosia, where it is impossible for the subject to recognize an element or person, in dysgnosia there is only a difficulty of recognition.

Some of the characteristics that are observed in people with learning disabilities such as digraphy or dysgnosia are: the loss of identifying subtle differences in the forms or printed letters, loss of space frequently, difficulty in cutting, difficulty in differentiating one object from another, Difficulty holding the pencil too tight or poor eye / hand coordination.

Learning disorders not only cause problems with visual or motor processing, they can also cause psychological, socialization and self-esteem problems . In childhood children are more likely to feel frustrated and embarrassed, and this can cause social isolation.

Causes of dysgnosia

The exact cause that causes this disorder is still unknown. It is estimated that various factors such as brain injuries, genetic and psychological factors, or their combination, may be the cause of the appearance of dysgnosies in the individual.

The brain injuries are one of the most common causes for the disgnosias are generated. These injuries can be caused by trauma that affects part of the brain, cerebrovascular accidents, or by loss of mental faculties -such as dementia-.

Regarding genetics , it has been proven that, as with other learning disorders, if there is a family history of dysgnosia, you will be more likely to suffer from it.

From the psychological point of view : overprotection of the environment, behavior problems , lack of affection or suffering from other learning disorders, make the subject susceptible to suffering from any form of dysgnosia.

Symptoms of dysgnosies

The most common symptoms shown in people with dysgnosia are:

  • Inattention to visual tasks
  • Visual Object Discrimination Problems
  • Difficulty performing tasks that require copying
  • Visual sequence problems
  • Difficulty writing within lines or margins
  • Skipping words or entire lines when reading
  • Visual-motor processing problems
  • Has eye strain or frequently
  • Long-term or short-term visual memory problems
  • Does not observe or acknowledge changes on ad or billboard screens
  • Visual spatial problems
  • Problems changing letters or symbols
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Classification of dysgnosies

The type of learning difficulty is classified according to the sensory modality involved:

  • Simple: A single sensory modality is involved:
  1. Visual dysgnosia – alteration in the acquisition of visual perception.
  2. Tactile dysgnosia – alteration of the information we receive through touch.
  3. Auditory dysgnosia – difficulty identifying and differentiating noises and sounds.
  • Complex : Integration of information from various sensory systems, since not only the information that comes through the senses is involved, but also that of the body itself or also called deep sensitivity.
  1. Dysomatognosia or body schema dysgnosia
  2. Dysgnosia of space and time

Perceptions formation process

The process of formation of perceptions is accomplished through an assimilating and differentiating activity at the same time, which is prior to the figures. This activity incorporates new elements of the primitive perceptions that are like the mental schemes of the action. As you accommodate these mental schemes according to reality, you incorporate new differences.

The formation of perceptions always depends on the dispositions and tendencies that express the influence of the past on the present and, in general, the direction of individual psychic life. William James already argued that there is no perception without a certain tendency to perceive something, which he called pre-perceptions.

Perceptual figures depend on certain previous states of an emotional and global nature, in which individual initiative begins to manifest itself. We understand in this way that perception begins as a global situation of consciousness, impregnated with feelings and tending towards action.

In this process of perception formation, the primitive totality gradually becomes an articulated structure, which we call form, and a structure devoid of articulation that has precise reliefs and contours, which we call figure.

How to treat dysgnosia in children?

It is necessary that the dysgnosia be diagnosed in time to have a more effective treatment.

Rehabilitation through cognitive-behavioral therapy in integration with psychomotor and educational psychologists may be the most effective treatment to treat dysgnosies in children. Treatment should continue at home, so parents or caregivers should continue with re-education.

Guidelines for continuing rehabilitation of dysgnoses

Understanding the problems of learning disabilities is a great first step in finding ways to help a child with dysgnosia. It is necessary that love and support always be given to him, this can make a big difference in the life of the child.

  • Observing and taking notes on a child’s problem areas can help develop a better understanding of what is going on.
  • Divide the instructions into concise steps and number each step.
  • Write the information in large, clear letters for the child to see and understand better. Color coding can also be helpful.
  • A lot of practice. Children can be helped to hone their visual processing skills through fun activities or through play. You can do simple puzzles, read easy-to-understand books, or play roll a ball around.
  • Celebrate your triumphs. If your child has had a difficult time learning a specific thing, and takes the last test, it is good to be generous in praising them, as support and recognition for genuine accomplishments can give your child the boost they need to keep moving forward.

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Hello Readers, I am Nikki Bella a Psychology student. I have always been concerned about human behavior and the mental processes that lead us to act and think the way we do. My collaboration as an editor in the psychology area of ​​Well Being Pole has allowed me to investigate further and expand my knowledge in the field of mental health; I have also acquired great knowledge about physical health and well-being, two fundamental bases that are directly related and are part of all mental health.

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