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Female reproductive system


The female reproductive system is the female sexual system. It is an anatomical structure that allows the fertilization, gestation and birth of a baby. The system in question is located in the pelvis and is made up of a wide range of organs , both internal and external. All of them are interrelated, forming a system in which each one of them plays a fundamental role.

Organs of the female reproductive system

The organs of the female reproductive system are divided into two broad categories. On the one hand, the external organs; and, on the other hand, the inmates. Let’s see what each of them are.

External bodies

  • Labia minora: they are two folds whose main function is to protect the entrance of both the vagina and the urethra. They have several glands that keep them moist.
  • Labia majora: they are two folds covered with hair that are responsible for protecting the lavios minors.
  • Clitoris: it is the point of union between both folds of the labia minora. Its function is purely sexual; It is one of the most sensitive organs of the female body as it has a wide range of nerve endings.
  • Urethral orifice: it is a small opening through which urine is expelled.
  • Vaginal orifice: it is located a little lower than the urethral orifice. This is the entrance to the vagina and is partially covered by the hymen.
  • Hymen: it is a very thin and flexible membrane that has a small opening through which both vaginal and menstrual discharge is expelled.

Internal organs

  • The cervix is a small opening, about the size of the head of a pin, that joins the uterus with the vagina. It is precisely through the cervix where menstruation is expelled.
  • Endometrium: it is a membrane that covers the inside of the uterus, in which the ovum is implanted once it is fertilized. When the ovum is not fertilized, this membrane is expelled along with a certain amount of blood; It is what is known as menstruation.
  • Uterus: it is a muscular organ in which the fetus is housed when the woman is pregnant. Therefore, it is characterized by being extremely flexible.
  • Fallopian tubes: they are two tubes that connect the uterus with the ovaries. Through them the ovum descends during menstruation. It is also in the fallopian tubes where fertilization occurs, so it is a very important organ.
  • Ovaries: they are two small organs, in which the ovules mature and the sex hormones, progesterone and estrogens are generated.
  • Vagina: it is the most important organ of the female reproductive system of all. It is made up of a series of very elastic muscles and its interior is moist due to vaginal discharge.

How does the female reproductive system work?

All women have two ovaries, one of the most important organs of the female reproductive system; they are in charge of maturing the ovules. Women are born with around 250,000 eggs in each ovary , which are very small in size, similar to the head of a pin.

Once puberty begins, monthly a mature ovum begins to detach from one of the ovaries; This is known as ovulation.

Thus, when a certain ovum leaves the ovary, it takes refuge in the fallopian tubes ; through them it travels to the uterus. If at that time a sperm is inside the woman’s genital tract, pregnancy occurs. When a woman becomes pregnant, the egg that has been fertilized develops in the uterus ; It is initially known as an embryo and later as a fetus.

Therefore, starting at puberty, every month a woman’s body prepares for a possible pregnancy; even the endometrium thickens to accommodate a possible fetus.

Thus, if the woman does not become pregnant, the endometrium disintegrates, thus causing the menstrual flow. When menstruation occurs, blood flow passes through the opening of the cervix and leaves the body through the vagina.


Around the end of puberty, girls begin to release a monthly egg in what is known as the menstrual cycle . The blood and tissues that line the inside of the uterus combine to produce menstrual flow, which lasts about three to five days.

Lots of women experience what is known as premenstrual syndrome in the days before menstruation. It is a condition that is not serious at all, but that entails a wide variety of physical and emotional symptoms: abdominal distension, fatigue, diarrhea, irritability, inflammation and pain in the breasts, depression, and difficulty in both attention and care. concentration.

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During menstruation, there are also some women who suffer from abdominal cramps. These cramps have their explanation in prostaglandins; chemicals that are present in the body and cause the muscles that make up the uterus to contract.

Fertilization and pregnancy

When there is sexual intercourse between a man and a woman on the days close to her ovulation, the chances of pregnancy are very high. When the man ejaculates, he deposits between 1.5 and 6 milliliters of semen in the vagina, in which nothing more and nothing less than between 75 and 900 million sperm are hidden . Once inside the vagina, they travel through the cervix and uterus to fertilize the egg in the fallopian tube.

First phase

One week after the sperm has fertilized the egg, the fertilized egg transforms into a multicellular blastocyst ; it is tiny, like the head of a pin. This blastocyst becomes lodged in the endometrium, which increases in thickness so that it is able to integrate into the wall of the uterus. This process is called implantation, and it sometimes causes what is known as implantation bleeding ; they are small drops of brown blood that do not last for more than two or three days.

Second stage

When the cells of the blastocyst begin to receive nutrients, what is known as the embryonic stage begins. The inner cells create a kind of circle called an embryonic disc, which will develop into a baby. As these cells develop, they form the embryo ; many of its parts, such as the brain, nerves or stomach, among others, are already formed.

Third phase

From there, what is known as the fetal stage begins , which runs from the ninth week after fertilization until the moment of birth. The fetus floats in the amniotic fluid, which is inside the amniotic sac. The oxygen and nutrients that the fetus receives from the mother do so through the placenta, which is connected to the fetus through the umbilical cord.

A pregnancy lasts approximately 280 days, around nine months. Once the baby is ready to be born, his head presses on the cervix so that the cervix relaxes and widens to prepare for the baby to pass through the vagina.

Types of hormones

There are two types of hormones, both produced by the ovaries:

  • Estrogen hormones: they occur at puberty and cause certain changes in the body, such as widening of the hips or high-pitched voice, among others.
  • Progesterone hormones: their main function is to enlarge the cavity of the blood vessels found in the endometrium.

Most common diseases of the female reproductive system

These are some of the most common conditions in relation to the female reproductive system.

  • Vulvovaginitis: it is an inflammation of the vulva and vagina. Its causes can be very broad and diverse; one of the most common is the use of irritants in the area, such as perfumed bath gels. It can also be due to other factors, such as poor personal hygiene. The warning signs of this disease are generally redness and itching of the vagina, as well as excessive vaginal discharge.
  • Ectopic pregnancy : it is known as such a pregnancy in which the fertilized egg does not reach the uterus and, therefore, grows in the fallopian tube. In these cases, the pregnancy never comes to an end and surgery is necessary to remove the embryo.
  • Ovarian cysts: These types of cysts are benign fluid-filled sacs. Although in the vast majority of cases they do not involve anything serious, they can pose a problem if the cysts become large because they can push the nearby organs, causing great pain in the abomen area. In the event that they cause pain, surgery can be used to remove them.
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome: This is a hormonal disorder in which the ovaries produce a large amount of male hormones, called androgens. This causes the ovaries to enlarge and develop benign cysts. This condition is sometimes treated with medications that help balance hormones and the menstrual cycle.
  • Endometriosis : it is a disease that consists of the growth of a tissue inside the uterus outside it, and even in other organs such as the ovaries or fallopian tubes. It can cause certain symptoms such as severe pain in the pelvic area and abdominal bleeding.


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Hello Readers, I am Nikki Bella a Psychology student. I have always been concerned about human behavior and the mental processes that lead us to act and think the way we do. My collaboration as an editor in the psychology area of ​​Well Being Pole has allowed me to investigate further and expand my knowledge in the field of mental health; I have also acquired great knowledge about physical health and well-being, two fundamental bases that are directly related and are part of all mental health.

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