It is the bill of the femur, the longest bone in the leg, which runs from the hip to the knee. In this case, the fracture corresponds to the part closest to the hip, at the head of the femur.
Why is it produced?
The most common cause of fracture in the elderly is falling. Other types of trauma (for example, a traffic accident) are more frequent in young people.
If other risk factors are also associated, such as osteoporosis , the risk of suffering this fracture increases in the event of a fall.
Symptoms of hip fracture
When the person falls, they are not able to stand up, and if they do, they cannot support the affected leg. Except for the impacted fracture of the head of the femur, which allows the person to sit up.
The symptoms that can appear in any hip bill are:
- Pain usually appears, especially in the groin area.
- The leg appears rotated and the foot rotated, both outwards.
- The leg is separated and shortened a few centimeters.
But this fracture can cause a series of complications, either by itself or by its origin, which is generally a fall.
Other manifestations that appear in hip fracture are:
- Injuries secondary to the fall (bruises, blood loss, other fractures …)
- Hypothermia (decrease in body temperature), from staying too long on the floor.
- Post-fall syndrome: it appears in people who have suffered a fall, and after their recovery, the fear of another future fall causes their gait to become more unstable, their exits decrease and they reach a state of immobilization at home, bed or even loss of gait, having to use a wheelchair to get around.
How is it diagnosed?
This fracture is diagnosed by clinical examination of the affected limb, usually accompanied by a hip X-ray showing the fracture line of the bone.
Treatment of hip fracture
Depending on the severity and location of the fracture, there are different treatments:
Surgical operation is avoided, immobilizing and fixing the fracture. Analgesic drugs are administered to decrease and prevent pain, and anti-inflammatories and muscle relaxants may even be prescribed if necessary. This treatment is intended for early mobilization of the fracture.
Also in this section there are different techniques, each with its indications, depending on the type of fracture:
- You can choose to try a union of the ends, using plates or nails, this procedure is called ostesynthesis (osteo = bone; synthesis = join).
- If the head of the femur is severely damaged, it may need to be reconstructed or replaced with a prosthesis, an operation called arthroplasty.
How to avoid hip fracture?
To prevent these fractures, the best measure is to prevent their origin, and the most frequent is a fall.
In addition to trying to prevent domestic accidents, the elderly person may find themselves faced with other problems that precipitate the fall, such as:
- Deformities or pain in the lower limbs.
- Use of inappropriate footwear, or with a sole that is not slip resistant.
- Gait and balance disorders, dizziness, hypotension, fainting …
- Alterations of the sense organs (poor vision or hearing), which have not been corrected.
- Urinary incontinence problems , or a habit of urinating at night.
- Use of certain drugs such as antiemetics, diuretics, hypotensives (antiparkinsonians, antihypertensives, cardiotonics), psychotropics (tranquilizers, antidepressants, antipsychotics). You should consult your specialist when taking any of these drugs.
Hello Readers, I am Nikki Bella a Psychology student. I have always been concerned about human behavior and the mental processes that lead us to act and think the way we do. My collaboration as an editor in the psychology area of Well Being Pole has allowed me to investigate further and expand my knowledge in the field of mental health; I have also acquired great knowledge about physical health and well-being, two fundamental bases that are directly related and are part of all mental health.