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Muscular system

The muscular system is of great importance for the human body, since its movement depends entirely on it. In addition, its tissues and the other elements that make up its structure are essential for the support of our bone system , and our organs. If you want to know more about this important system, keep reading.

What is the muscular system?

As just mentioned, the muscular system is in charge of everything related to movement processes in our body . Likewise, this important system also influences other fundamental processes that allow the proper functioning of the organs of our body, and other functions related to blood circulation.

What are muscle tissues?

The tissues of the muscular apparatus or muscles as they are also known, are basically the formation or union of contractile cells that make up the structure of the muscular system. These cells are also called ‘myocytes’ or ‘muscle fiber’, and their operation depends exclusively on an element known as “ATP” , which is responsible for providing them with energy.

It should be noted that almost half of the percentage of the mass in our body is made up of muscle tissue. Being one of the most important functions, the process of ‘contraction’ that they carry out, which allows the mobility of the muscles of our body .

In addition, said muscle fiber is composed of a cytoplasm and sarcolemma, respectively. The first can be found around the nucleus of the cell, also known as ‘sarcoplasm’. While the second, in charge of establishing the parameters and internal balance of the cell, is known as ‘sarcolemma’.

Classification of the muscular system

Structurally, it can be said that the muscular system is composed of 3 main types of tissues. The former is a skeletal-type tissue, while the latter is cardiac and the latter is smooth .

Each of these fulfills vitally important functions so that the processes in our body are carried out correctly. Thus, some are carried out through automatic or involuntary processes, as well as others in a totally voluntary way. Next, we will talk to you in greater detail about each of these tissues of the muscular system .

Skeletal muscle

First of all, you should know that this is the type of muscle tissue with the greatest presence in our body . It is characterized by its great capacities to mold itself to the structure or ‘morphology’ of our body. In addition, the same through the tendons joins both with the bone system in general, as well as with the joints.

Among the main functions of this type of muscle is the movement of our body through the use of various forces. It is for this reason that skeletal muscles are grouped and work in an organized way , which allows the mobility of our bone system in an adequate and coordinated way.

This type of muscle tissue is also essential for our bone structure to remain united . It should be noted that like almost all organisms that comprise our body, skeletal muscle depends largely on our brain . In such a way, that its operation is carried out in a voluntary way.

Smooth muscle

This type of muscle is characterized by being the one found in the largest number of blood vessels in our body. Being in the area of ​​the digestive system, it performs functions of vital importance both in the absorption of nutrients and other elements necessary for our body, as well as in the transport of food.

It should be noted that smooth muscle works fully automatically , through the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems respectively. In addition, its contraction process is necessary so that our body can excrete everything that is no longer necessary.

On the other hand, these contractions also contribute to the fulfillment of various fundamental tasks . Having important repercussions both at the respiratory level, as well as at a general level in relation to the functioning of the cardiovascular system. It is for this reason that it is classified as one of the main muscle types of the body.

Heart muscle

As can be assumed from its name, this type of muscle is made up of exclusively cardiac cells . In this way, its operation is limited only to the processes related to this organ as important to our body as the heart.

Thus, one of the main functions of the heart muscle is to do everything possible to keep the heart activity or heart rhythm stable on a continuous basis . For this, the cellular organelles that provide greater resistance to this muscle and correct ‘respiration’ play an important role, as are the mitochondria.

Muscular system mobility

In our body two types of mobility usually occur constantly. The first is about voluntary mobility, of which we are aware. While the second involves those involuntary or ‘unconscious’ movements that we have no control over. Next, we will talk to you in more detail about each of these types of mobility.

Voluntary mobility

In the case of muscles with voluntary mobility, or ‘voluntary muscles’, the brain plays an important role. Since the mobility of these muscles depends exclusively on the orders of our brain in a conscious way. This is why skeletal muscle is among the type of muscles classified as ‘voluntary’ .

However, you should know that despite not being very common, these muscles can also be exposed to various types of involuntary contractions generated by pathologies. A clear example of this are those out of control contractions presented because of ‘tetanus’.

Involuntary mobility

As can be guessed from its name, involuntary mobility is one that our body performs automatically and of which we are not aware . Thus, among the types of muscles with involuntary mobility, both smooth muscle and cardiac muscle are found, due to the important functions that they develop in an uninterrupted way.

It should be noted that despite the mobility of these muscles being unconscious, they work in a highly organized manner. This, thanks to their regulation by the autonomic nervous system . This task being specifically in the hands of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems .

Distribution of muscles in our body

You should know that 639 are the approximate number of muscles present in our body . Therefore, they are usually classified or grouped in an organized way to locate them more easily. Next, we will mention some of the most important muscles present in various areas of the body, going from the head to the feet.

1. Head and neck muscles

In the head, and more specifically in the face, there are numerous amounts of muscles. Thanks to these, we can make various expressions with our face . This being the case, most of the muscles present in this area of ​​the body, the known ‘short muscles’.

These are some of the main muscles that are present both in the head in general, as well as in the neck:

In the head

  • Muscle ‘Masetero’ or ‘Masetero’.
  • Occipital and frontal.
  • Orbicular (present both on the eyelids and on the lips).
  • Risorio.
  • Temporary.
  • Frontal and occipital.

In the neck

  • Esternocleidomastoid y Esternocleidhioid.
  • Constrictor muscle.
  • Cutaneous muscle of the neck.
  • Trapeze.
  • Watch a video.

2. Muscles of the shoulders, arms and hands

Continuing with this grouping of muscles, we have the shoulder muscles that can be classified into 9 main muscles . On the other hand, the muscles of the arms are divided into 2 groups, and those of the hands can also be characterized by 2 main groups. Next, we will proceed to mention them to you.

In the shoulders

  • Teres major and minor muscle.
  • Supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscle.
  • Deltoid.
  • The subscapularis muscle.
  • The latissimus dorsi muscle.
  • Pectoral major.

In the arms

The elbow flexors
  • Coracobrachial.
  • Brachial biceps.
  • Brachialis muscle.
The extenders
  • Anconeus muscle.
  • Triceps Brachii.

In the hands

Lumbrical muscles

These are 4 muscles that are located near the palm of the hand. These are distinguished by an enumeration for each of the muscles (I, II, III, IV).

Interosseous muscles

The interosseous muscles are also 4 muscles of great importance for the hand, which are given a respective numerical denomination from the first to the fourth respectively, as happens with the lumbrical muscles.

3. Muscles of the back, chest and abdomen

The muscles of the back, thorax and abdomen, in addition to being of great importance to our body, are numerous (especially the muscles of the back). So let’s get to know some of the main muscles of these areas just mentioned.

In the back

  • Spiny and Infraspinous Muscle.
  • Rhomboid major and multifidus muscle.
  • Latissimus dorsi and erector spinae muscle.
  • Square lumbar muscle.
  • Levator scapulae muscle.

In the thorax

Superficial muscles
  • Pectoral major and minor.
  • Serratus anterior and subclavian muscle.
Deep muscles
  • Intercostals (external, internal and intimate).
  • Subcostals.
  • Transverse muscle.

In the abdomen

Previous group
  • Pyramidal.
  • Anterior rectus.
Posterior group
  • Lumbar Square.
Side group
  • Internal and external obliques.
  • Transverse (abdominal) muscle.

4. Muscles of the hips, legs and feet

Finally, we have the muscles located in the areas of both the hips, as well as the legs and feet. In the case of the hip, we can find this part of the body surrounded by various muscles that are essential for its proper functioning.

For their part, both the muscles of the legs and feet also play a transcendental process to allow us a correct mobility . These are some of the most important muscles located in these parts of the body:

On the hips and legs

  • Gluteus maximus, middle and minor.
  • Adductor muscle, short and long of the thigh.
  • Iliopsoas muscle and pectineus muscle.
  • Tensor fascia lata and crural square.
  • Upper and lower gemini.
  • Internal and external shutter.
  • Rectus anterior quadriceps and piriformis muscle.
  • Deep and Femoral Lateral Rotators.
  • Semitendinous and semimembranous.

In the feet

Intrinsic muscles
  • Flexor, adductor and opponent muscle.
  • Lumbrical muscle of the foot.
  • Square plantar.
  • Extensor muscles (short and long).
extrinsic muscles
  • Anterior and posterior tibial.
  • Extensor digitorum longus and flexor digitorum longus.
  • Peroneal anterior and laterals.
  • Sural triceps.

How to recognize the main muscles of the human body

As we have seen, our body is made up of a large number of muscles . This being the case, essential parts for its proper functioning. Next, we will mention briefly and at a general level how these muscles are classified, according to their characteristics.

Deep or superficial muscles?

How to know if the muscles are superficial or deep? Here are some tips to detect them.

Deep muscles

As its name indicates, they are those muscles that can be found closer both to our bone structure, as well as to the organs.

Superficial muscles

On the other hand, the superficial muscles are those that are closer to the outside. Since, these are characterized by being much closer to the skin area than the deep muscles.

Characteristics of the muscles

According to its morphology, we can find numerous muscles of different size and length throughout our body. These are classified according to certain particular characteristics. We will talk a little about these below.

Long muscles

These muscles can be located especially in the extremities of our body (arms and legs). Characterizing itself thus, by its elongated and disproportionate figure (this, if we take into account that in its middle part they have much more volume than in its ends ).

Short muscles

As their name implies, they are muscles of small length. However, its functions are of paramount importance. Among these muscles, we can find those located in various areas of the face , as well as in some areas of the hands and feet.

Wide muscles

These muscles are characterized by the geometric figures that compose them (from triangular, to square or rectangular shapes). In addition, they fulfill an important task in our body by protecting various organs. These muscles can be found mainly in the abdominal and pectoral area.

Sphincter muscles

They are extremely important muscles to fulfill various vital functions in our body. Being thus, present the same in the reproductive and digestive system mainly. There, they fulfill the function of allowing or preventing the passage of various elements depending on the state in which the muscle is (relaxed or contracted).

Orbicular muscles

Finally we have the orbicular muscles, which can be found mainly in the face area. In terms of structure, they are characterized by being circular muscles with a central hole.

Importance of the muscular system

Undoubtedly, the muscular system is one of the most complete and surprising of our human body. It also works in an incredibly organized and structured way . Counting thus, with hundreds of muscles that are responsible for fulfilling specific functions both voluntarily and involuntarily.

Next, we will mention some of the more particular functions that the muscular system fulfills. In this way, you will be able to know in greater detail the importance it has for the human body.

It allows us to carry out locomotor processes in our body

This is one of the most obvious and important characteristics that the muscular system performs. Thanks to this, both internal mobility (related to the displacement of the blood system), to external mobility (displacement) of our body are successfully carried out.

Where most internal processes work involuntarily or unconsciously. While the processes of external mobility, if they depend largely on the will.

Allow us to express our emotions and feelings

The muscular system not only serves to move us and keep us alive. Through the large number of muscles of the face that we use continuously, we can express gestures capable of representing our liking, as well as rejection of various situations.

Provides us with a constant source of caloric energy

As mentioned above, our body is constantly working (even when we sleep). In this way, many processes are carried out automatically, especially numerous muscle contractions. These are beneficial, as it produces the ‘thermal’ or ‘caloric’ energy essential for our body.

Regarding these contractions, as mentioned before, they are essential to prohibit or allow the passage of various important elements in our body. Finding among these especially, those in charge of the purification of our organism of those wastes that it does not need .

The muscular system, one of the most complex body systems

Taking into account all the information presented above, we could say that the muscular system, if it is not the most important system in our body, turns out to be one of the most transcendental.

Thus, it is important to know about the many muscles that are part of our body, as well as the large number of functions they fulfill. In this way, we will be able to understand a little better the functioning of this complex organism that we call the ‘human body’.

Diseases of the muscular system

These are some of the diseases of the muscular system , which can develop throughout life, or since we are born, a few known disorders that can occur during our daily lives, such as doing sports, or walking.

  • Muscle atrophy : loss of muscle tissue
  • Muscle hypertrophy – abnormal muscle growth
  • Muscle tear : Tear of the tissue covering the muscle
  • Poliomyelitis : virus of the nervous system that affects developing muscle atrophy.
  • Myasthenia gravis : weakness of muscle tissue.

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Hello Readers, I am Nikki Bella a Psychology student. I have always been concerned about human behavior and the mental processes that lead us to act and think the way we do. My collaboration as an editor in the psychology area of ​​Well Being Pole has allowed me to investigate further and expand my knowledge in the field of mental health; I have also acquired great knowledge about physical health and well-being, two fundamental bases that are directly related and are part of all mental health.

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