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Myopia

The myopia is a visual defect in which the eye has poor distance vision.

It is important to detect myopia before the age of six and that is why all children should be screened for visual acuity.

Causes of myopia

Production can be due to two situations:

  • Axial myopia: it is produced by an increase in the longitudinal size of the eyeball, that is, the eyeball is longer than normal. It is the most frequent.
  • Index myopia: it occurs because there is an increase in the normal refraction of some of the media in the front part of the eye (cornea, lens).
The influence of heredity is very important in myopia.

In these eyes, the rays of light that arrive parallel undergo excessive convergence, whereby the image is formed in front of the retina and is blurred.

The eye sees blurred from afar and to see clearly it needs to approach the object, in such a way that the rays arrive divergent and the image thus forms, further back, on the retina.

In axial myopia, because the eye is longer than usual, the image is formed before the place where it would correspond, which would be the retina.

In index myopia, as there is an increase in normal refraction, this will produce a change in the deflection of light for the formation of the image and that it also forms before the retina. Axial myopia increases from the age of onset (which goes from infancy to youth), normally stopping shortly after the individual has finished growing; Until then, it will have stages of more or less rapid progression, which varies between the different patients. You can also have late flare-ups in connection with pregnancy, with a serious illness, etc.

What symptoms appear?

The fundamental symptom that occurs, as has already been said previously, is that the myopic eye sees blurry from a distance and to see clearly it needs to get closer to the object.

By their behavior we are going to distinguish two types of myopia:

  • Simple myopia: it is the most frequent, affecting 10% of the population. In general, they do not usually exceed 6-8 diopters, although this is not the only data to classify them in this group, but it is usually their benign nature. It usually appears at school age, with a slowly progressive evolution until approximately twenty years of age. The ocular structures are normal and complications are rare. It is usually completely corrected with the right lenses.
  • Malignant or degenerative myopia: it is a true disease, the patient having more than 6 diopters and, in addition, significant degenerative changes in the retina and choroids are associated, which will significantly compromise the patient’s vision. It is much less common and is not always corrected with lenses. Its course is progressive, but much faster and its arrest is not so clearly linked to the end of growth. Complications are frequent and significantly worsen your visual prognosis, thus requiring strict control by the ophthalmologist.
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Complications

  • Choroid thinning, with atrophic areas. Choroidal ruptures with subretinal hemorrhages.
  • Retinal degenerations: some of them presenting a high risk of having a retinal detachment .
  • Vitreous degenerations, which can increase the risk of retinal detachment.
  • Cataracts, glaucoma , etc.

Diagnosis of myopia

The following steps will be followed:

1. When a patient comes reporting that he has decreased visual acuity, the first thing that is going to be done is the optotype test.

2. If the optotype test confirms that he has decreased visual acuity, the pinhole test will be performed and if the patient improves his vision, he will give us the diagnosis.

Treatment

The treatment will be carried out with divergent lenses: they consist of concave lenses that will give a certain divergence to the light rays and thus delay the formation of the image to coincide with the retina.

Currently, myopia can be corrected surgically, by means of radial keratotomy or with laser keratectomy, although it should be known that these techniques can be accompanied by possible complications.

How to avoid it?

This visual defect is difficult to avoid, although it should be detected as soon as possible.

To detect it early (before the age of six), all children should have a visual acuity test (usually using optotypes).

Hereditary history and environmental risk factors, such as computer screen work, should be identified in patients with myopia.

One should be aware of the danger posed by violent sports in patients with high myopia (due to the possibility of retinal detachment, among other complications).

People who work with computers should also be educated on the use of screen filters.

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Hello Readers, I am Nikki Bella a Psychology student. I have always been concerned about human behavior and the mental processes that lead us to act and think the way we do. My collaboration as an editor in the psychology area of ​​Well Being Pole has allowed me to investigate further and expand my knowledge in the field of mental health; I have also acquired great knowledge about physical health and well-being, two fundamental bases that are directly related and are part of all mental health.

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