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Personality disorders


In mental health, the word “personality” refers to the collection of characteristics or traits that we develop as we grow and make each of us a unique individual. These traits include ways of thinking, feelings, and behaviors. 

In our late teens, most of us finish developing our own personalities. We have our own ways of thinking, feeling and behaving. This personality will remain practically the same for the rest of our lives.

There are people who present certain types of alterations in their personality. Some of them have these alterations from their childhood or adolescence and others discover them only in adulthood.

What are personality disorders?

Personality disorders are a permanent and inflexible pattern of internal experience and behavior . It departs markedly from the expectations of the subject’s culture . It begins in essentially late adolescence and is stable over time. They produce discomfort and damage to the environment , as they are ego-syntonic.

Causes of personality disorders

There are several theories about the causes of personality disorders. Some suggest that these may be caused by an  accumulation of biopsychosocial factors , such as the interrelation of the environment with genetic factors. They can also be caused by traumatic events or situations .

For Freud, personality is developed through the interaction between nature , unconscious processes and the environment  . Based on this, he affirmed that personality disorders were generated by unresolved conflicts in childhood.

General symptoms of personality disorders

  • Difficulty making or maintaining close relationships
  • Problems at work or school
  • Prolonged distress or depression
  • Difficulty staying out of trouble
  • Inability to control your feelings or behavior
  • Lack of empathy
  • They are prone to exaggerating the potential danger of ordinary situations
  • Tendency to altered ways of thinking, impulsive behavior, and trouble controlling emotions
  • They suffer from emotional insecurity
  • Difficulty listening to other people
  • They can suffer from anxiety disorders
  • They may have a low tolerance for frustration

Classification of personality disorders

Personality disorders are classified into three groups:

A – Closer to psicotic or . They are strange or eccentric subjects.

  • Paranoid : they present a general pattern of general distrust and suspicion of other people.
  • Schizoid : they present a general pattern of detachment and detachment from social relationships, as well as great difficulty expressing their emotions.
  • Schizotypal : they   present a general pattern of reduced capacity for social relationships, in addition to perceptual and cognitive distortions and strange behaviors.

B – They are the disorders of the personality itself . Dramatic, emotional and unstable subjects.

  • Antisocial : they present a general pattern of contempt and aberration for Human Rights.
  • Borderline : they present a general pattern of emotional instability, dichotomous thinking and instability in moods .
  • Narcissistic : they present a general pattern of grandeur, which can be seen in the subject’s imagination or behavior; a need for constant admiration and a lack of  empathy .
  • Histrionic or Hysteriform : they present a behavior pattern with excessive emotionality and constant search for attention.
  • Bipolar : they  present a general pattern of emotional instability, with moods that oscillate between euphoria and depression, joy and anguish,  optimism  and pessimism.
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C-  are the closest to the Neurotic or . Anxious and fearful subjects.

  • Obsessive-compulsive : they  present a general pattern of concern for order, improvement, and mental and interpersonal control.
  • Due to dependency : they present a general pattern of excessive submission, attachment and need to be taken care of.
  • By avoidance : they  present a general pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inferiority and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation or rejection.

Treatments for personality disorders

Treatment for personality disorders varies according to the type of disorder suffered by the patient and its severity.

Generally speaking , it begins with conversation psychotherapy , where the patient maintains a dialogue with his therapist to better understand his own thoughts, feelings and behaviors; and to know the necessary tools to face their disorder in the best possible way.

One of the most used and effective types of psychotherapies to treat personality disorders is cognitive behavioral therapy . Another of the psychotherapies that has demonstrated its effectiveness in the treatment of personality disorders is group therapy. Group therapy is an intensive form of therapy, in which the experience of having a personality disorder is explored in depth. In group therapy, each participant tells their story and their feelings to the group and with the help of their peers and the therapist, they try to reach a constructive solution that helps the patient understand and face their condition. The effectiveness of group therapy has been proven for mild to moderate personality disorders, but it must be taken into account that they require a high level of commitment and will from the patient.

Another treatment used to reduce and control the symptoms of personality disorders is medication . Your healthcare professional may prescribe medications to treat troublesome symptoms associated with a personality disorder, for example depression, anxiety, or hallucinations.


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Hello Readers, I am Nikki Bella a Psychology student. I have always been concerned about human behavior and the mental processes that lead us to act and think the way we do. My collaboration as an editor in the psychology area of ​​Well Being Pole has allowed me to investigate further and expand my knowledge in the field of mental health; I have also acquired great knowledge about physical health and well-being, two fundamental bases that are directly related and are part of all mental health.

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