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Salmonellosis

us called a series of diseases produced by bacteria that belong to the Salmonella genus, and can produce different clinical syndromes such as enteric fever , gastroenteritis, bacteremia and localized infections.

Why is it produced?

It is a bacterium belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae, there are different species and more than 2300 different serotypes have been found.

The different species of Salmonella, except typhi and paratyphi, produce a picture of gastroenteritis. Its reservoir is made up of domestic animals (chickens, cows, pigs, sheep) from which the infection passes to man.

In Spain the food most implicated is mayonnaise and foods that contain it, although it is also produced by the consumption of hamburgers, sausages, eggs, sausages, fish and vegetables.

Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi are the producers of enteric fiefre (typhoid or paratyphoid). Man is the only reservoir and source of infection, whether he is sick or a carrier. The transmission of the disease occurs through the ingestion of water and food contaminated with feces or urine of sick patients or carriers.

Salmonella infection occurs through consumption of water and food contaminated by this microorganism. Poor preservation facilitates the multiplication of microorganisms until reaching a sufficient quantity to produce the infection, which together with an inadequate culinary preparation favor the acquisition of the disease.

Symptoms of salmonellosis

Salmonella gastroenteritis

The incubation period after ingestion can be from 10 to 48 hours. It manifests as acute diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping pain, and low-grade fever. Diarrheal stools can sometimes contain blood and pus. Uncomplicated cases progress to spontaneous healing in 3 to 15 days.

Typhoid fever

The patient presents a maintained feverish picture, accompanied by malaise, headache (headache), myalgia (muscle pain), chills and sweating. Sometimes a cough occurs.

During the second week of convalescence there is stupor, maintenance of fever and the appearance of a typical roseola on the trunk (pink rash) and abdomen.

Diarrhea may occur, sometimes described as mashed peas.

There are late complications such as bleeding and perforation, sepsis can also worsen to shock.

How is it diagnosed

Salmonella gastroenteritis

 

The diagnosis is made by stool culture in selective media, both solid and liquid, where the growth of the microorganism occurs.

Typhoid fever

The accurate diagnosis is established by isolating the germ in repeat blood cultures. Blood cultures will be positive in 90% of cases during the first week. Stool cultures do not become positive until the second or third week and have a sensitivity of 75%. Serological tests are of little clinical utility.

Salmonellosis treatment

Salmonella gastroenteritis

The treatment is carried out with an astringent diet and rehydration solutions if necessary. The use of antibiotic therapy is not routinely indicated due to the risk of developing resistance and the possibility of increasing the period of excretion of the bacteria in the feces. In patients of extreme ages or prediponent factors, the use of antibiotics can be evaluated, as well as in severe forms of disease.

Typhoid fever

In this case, the use of antibiotics such as third generation cephalosporins or quinolones is necessary. In chronic carriers it may be necessary to perform a cholecystectomy. Vaccination is not routinely recommended and is not mandatory, it is only advisable when traveling to underdeveloped geographic areas with poor sanitary conditions, living with chronic carriers and laboratory personnel.

How to avoid salmonellosis?

Bacterial proliferation must be prevented by keeping the food at a temperature below 10ºC until the moment of transformation and consumption, and take care of personal hygiene and compliance with hygienic-sanitary measures when handling food.

Heat is the most suitable measure for the destruction of germs.

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Hello Readers, I am Nikki Bella a Psychology student. I have always been concerned about human behavior and the mental processes that lead us to act and think the way we do. My collaboration as an editor in the psychology area of ​​Well Being Pole has allowed me to investigate further and expand my knowledge in the field of mental health; I have also acquired great knowledge about physical health and well-being, two fundamental bases that are directly related and are part of all mental health.

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