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known as a group of cancers whose origin is in the cells of the connective tissue , which makes up the structure of the human body.

Sarcomas are generally divided into bone sarcomas and soft tissue sarcomas. According to data provided by the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology, they are rare tumors that develop mainly in the extremities.

Soft tissue tumors account for approximately 1% of all malignant tumors. Regarding the mortality rate, they cause around 2% of deaths as a result of cancer. Its incidence in the EU is 5 new cases per year per 100,000 inhabitants. They occur more often in men than in women.

Sarcoma: what is it?

There is a wide range of srcomas, although it is important to note that not all are cancerous. Thus, there are three types of tumors. On the one hand, the so-called benign, which do not involve cancer. On the other hand, intermediate tumors ; they are characterized because the tissues or bones take the condition of both cancerous and non-cancerous tumors. And finally, malignant tumors , or cancer.

Thus, sarcoma is a type of cancer that begins in different tissues of the human body, generally the bones or muscles; Sometimes it can also occur in other tissues such as fibers or nerves, as well as in blood vessels, or even deep tissues of the skin. In this way, two types of cancerous sarcomas are differentiated; those of soft tissues and those of bone tissues.

In the vast majority of cases, sarcoma begins in the extremities, arms, or legs.

Soft tissue sarcoma

Soft tissue sarcoma is a rare type of cancer, which occurs in very few cases globally. It begins in the soft tissues, which connect, support and / or cover certain structures of the body . This type of sarcoma can occur in any area of ​​the body, although it is more common in the abdomen and extremities.

Regarding treatment, the most common is the removal of the sarcoma by surgical intervention . However, in certain cases, depending on the size, type, location, and aggressiveness of the tumor itself, doctors may consider treatment with radiation and / or chemotherapy.


There are more than fifty types of soft tissue sarcomas, some of which occur in very few cases.

  • Fibrosarcoma in adults: in a high percentage of cases it affects the fibrous tissue of the legs, trunk, or arms. Although it can occur in people of all ages, this type of sarcoma is more common in adults, between 20 and 60 years old.
  • Angiosarcoma: This type of sarcoma originates from blood vessels or lymphatic vessels. It is common for it to form in an area of ​​the body that has been exposed to radiation due to, for example, radiotherapy treatment .
  • Liposarcoma: a malignant tumor of tissues made up of body fat. Although it can originate in any area of ​​the human body, it is most common in the upper legs, behind the knees, and in the back of the abdomen.
  • Epithelioid: it generally occurs in the white tissues found in the inner layer of the skin of the extremities. It occurs mostly in young people.
  • Gastrointestinal: is that type of sarcoma that develops in the digestive tract .
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma: This is the most common soft tissue sarcoma that occurs in children.
  • Synovial sarcoma: a malignant tumor that develops in the tissue around the body’s joints. The areas of the body most affected by this type of sarcoma are the hips, knees, ankles and shoulders. Although it can also occur in adults, it is more common in children and young people.
  • Hemangioendothelioma: is the name given to the blood vessel tumor. It is considered a low-grade malignant tumor; that is, it grows slowly, and, furthermore, it does not spread to other areas of the body easily. It usually originates in soft tissues or in certain organs, such as the liver or lungs.
  • Childhood fibrosarcoma: This is the type of soft tissue sarcoma that occurs most often in babies under one year of age. In the vast majority of cases it has a slow growth. It is not usual for it to spread to other organs.
  • Hibernoma: a type of benign sarcoma, in which the affected tissue is made up of fat.
  • Neuroma: a benign tumor of the nerves whose main symptom is a sharp and intense pain.

Causes and risk factors

In the vast majority of cases, the cause of sarcoma is not definitively known. In general, this disorder occurs when any type of error occurs in the DNA of the cells , so that they begin to grow and divide in an uncontrolled way.

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There are a number of risk factors that significantly increase the risk of developing sarcoma. On the one hand, the hereditary factor. On the other hand, exposure to certain chemicals over a long period of time. And finally, radiation exposure , common in cancer patients treated with radiation therapy.


More than 50% of soft tissue sarcomas originate in the extremities ( source ). Thus, in a high percentage of cases, the first warning symptom is the appearance of a mass that is increasing in size . Some patients report that this mass causes pain, especially when touched, while others do not. Pain usually occurs when the mass presses on nerves or muscles.

If the sarcoma occurs in the back of the abdomen, it is important to seek urgent medical assistance. Otherwise, the consequences can be fatal to health in the medium and long term: presence of blood in fecal cells due to pressure on blood vessels, obstruction of the stomach or intestines …

Sarcoma of bone tissues

Bone cancer is very rare in adults. It begins in the cells that make up the bones of the human body , when they begin to grow and divide uncontrollably.

Regarding the treatment of this type of sarcoma, the most common is surgery. Thus, the entire tumor is removed. Thanks to advances in technology and medicine, the vast majority of patients with limb bone cancer avoid radical surgical procedures such as amputation.


Like soft tissue sarcoma, bone sarcoma is also divided into two large groups: cancerous and non-cancerous. Here are some of the most common types of bone tissue sarcoma.

  • Osteoblastoma: a non-cancerous type of bone tumor, which does not spread to other tissues or organs in the human body. In the vast majority of cases, it is not life threatening.
  • Osteosarcoma: This is the most common primary bone cancer, which originates in bone cells. Although it can affect people of all ages, it is most common in people between 10 and 30 years of age. A malignant tumor that usually develops in the bones of the extremities or in the pelbis.
  • Chondrosarcoma: it is the second most common bone cancer, and occurs mainly in adults. This malignant tumor originates in cartilage cells in areas such as the pelvis, arms, or legs.


The truth is that there is no clearly defined cause for this type of sarcoma. However, there are a number of factors that greatly increase the risk of these tumors.

For example, osteosarcoma occurs more frequently in patients who have received radiation therapy treatment for cancer . In some cases, the cause of sarcoma, both benign and malignant, can be inherited.

In addition, those who suffer from hereditary bone problems and / or who have metal implants are more susceptible to suffering from osteosarcoma.


In general, sarcoma of bone tissue does not cause any symptoms in its initial phase. That is why in a high percentage of cases the diagnosis of the disease is made when it is already in an advanced stage. A fact that greatly impairs the survival of patients if it is a malignant tumor.

The sign that practically 100% of patients present is pain , which is characterized by being persistent and, in addition, very acute. In addition, in some cases the area near the affected bone is also inflamed.


Currently, thanks to advances in the field of healthcare technology, around 50% of sarcomas are cured successfully . Furthermore, if the patient receives adequate local treatment, the chances of the tumor reappearing in the short or long term are very low. The vast majority of deaths from amlignant sarcoma occur from metastasis, not from the tumor itself.


Finally, it should be noted that all sarcomas are curable, as long as they are diagnosed in time . The most frequent treatment is surgery, both in benign and malignant sarcomas. Radiation therapy and other medical treatments, such as chemotherapy, may be used to improve the expectations of the operation, or to reduce the chances that the tumor will grow again.

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Hello Readers, I am Nikki Bella a Psychology student. I have always been concerned about human behavior and the mental processes that lead us to act and think the way we do. My collaboration as an editor in the psychology area of ​​Well Being Pole has allowed me to investigate further and expand my knowledge in the field of mental health; I have also acquired great knowledge about physical health and well-being, two fundamental bases that are directly related and are part of all mental health.

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