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Skeletal system (bone system)

It is difficult for us to find something around us that does not have a solid structure with which to stay raised or standing on the surface. We can easily see that in architectural constructions, in nature through the trees and of course, in the species of the animal world and in human beings, who also have a skeletal system which is made up of resistant bones .

But have you asked yourself: is it really necessary? How is it made? Can steps be taken to maintain the skeletal system for much longer ? You can learn about this and more in this interesting article; so do not stop reading until the end to know every detail.

What is the skeletal system?

The human skeleton not only collaborates with the body to be upright or straight while the person is walking or sitting, it goes a little further, since this structure allows maintaining a correct order and organization inside the body. It is also known as the skeletal or skeletal system.

Part of the supplements that contribute to this system are cartilage, bones, joints and ligaments, all of which together strengthen every aspect of the human body structure.

Characteristics of the skeletal system

Once said system reaches adult maturity, there are 206 bones in all its composition , which are perfectly developed by other systems, such as ligaments , tendons and muscles.

In the case that a person has a weight of 75 kilos, then his skeleton will weigh a total of approximately 9 kilos. Why? As the skeletal system takes its density by 12% of the total weight of the human body.

Parts of the bone system


It is a very flexible fabric to achieve the perfect cushioning effect, so it is also a thick fabric. This allows each bone to have the correct protection, thus avoiding any friction with other bones.

Compact bone

It is that external area of ​​the bone that keeps a powerful solid and strong composition

Spongy bone

It is nothing more than the internal part of the compact bone that we analyzed above, which has a composition similar to that of a sponge due to the number of holes it presents. The medulla is arranged in each of these holes.

Soft bone marrow

It is the tissue made up of cells, where red blood cells and platelets are subsequently manufactured.


It is the membrane whose function is to cover the entire external aspect of the bones, which although it is thin, has the appropriate density for proper protection. In addition, it has a large number of blood vessels and nerves to nourish all bone tissue.

At this point it is also important to detail the joints, which represent the union of the bones; This aspect is essential for the entire human skeleton to have the correct mobility and rigidity.

The joints also have a variety of types , which are responsible for redirecting movements according to the bones present, such as the shoulders and elbows. There are also joints that do not produce movement; in the case of the cranial box.

On the other hand there are the tissues, which in this case we would be talking about bone tissue; which is about a tissue that is transforming as the years go by and is made up of cells; thus allowing it to be a perfect rigid matrix with powerful density .

This bone matrix is ​​complemented with 3 main components, such as the following: water, proteins and mineral salts. While cells are divided into 4 types:

  1. Osteoprogenitor cells : are those that are responsible for producing the rest of the cells that will participate with bone tissue
  2. Osteoblast cells : are those that allow the formation of bones, secreting various molecules to promote the matrix correctly
  3. Osteoclast cells : are those that can dissolve to be absorbed by the bone
  4. Osteocyte cells : they are very mature cells and come from osteoblasts

What is the function of the human skeleton?

Acts as a kind of mechanical support and posture base

The capacity of its structure, as well as its strength and rigidity, allows the whole body to maintain the correct morphology of the body , thus allowing human beings to walk without problems on two legs.

Provides the opportunity for mobilization

This is possible since each bone is in a location adjacent to the next bone, where there are also connections of a muscular nature , which are commonly known as joints, and hence the possibility of mobilizing the body.

Provides protection to the whole body

The human skeleton is a shield against the human body, since each bone duly protects the organs that are inside. These aspects can be clearly reflected in the case of the brain, which is protected by the skull, just as the rib cage protects the heart, lungs, among others.

Transforms into a metabolic warehouse

This skeletal system that governs the bones of the human body has the main feature of being a filter or moderator of calcium , phosphate and salt exchanges , as well as high concentrations.

Ability to generate blood cells

It is because within the structure a red bone marrow is included , located inside some of the more than 200 eggs in the human body, where blood cells can be produced.

How is the skeletal system made up?

According to various medical studies, it has been determined that the human skeleton has two parts , such as those that we will analyze below:

  • Axial skeleton

This part is specifically made up of the spine, skull, sternum, and ribs. That is to say, the axial skeleton focuses on the axis control of the human body . On the other hand, the system that protects the bones such as the central nervous system and the organs that are positioned inside the thorax is also present.

  • appendicular skeleton

Here are all the bones that make up the pelvic girdle, the shoulder girdle and the 4 upper and lower extremities of the human body, such as the arms and legs. In this case, the shoulder girdle creates the connection link with the rest of the body through the trunk with the arms, and the pelvic girdle with the trunk and legs.

How is the process of functioning of the human skeleton?

As we have already been able to analyze, the cartilage system interpenetrates with the skeletal system, thus providing perfect mobility to each of the bones. In addition, the muscle system also contributes its capacity, since it protects the bones with the covering of fleshy tissues , creating a connection between the skin and the bones of the human body.

From the beginning, the development of the bone system originates from the mother’s womb during the gestation stage, where the baby’s first bones are produced. In the first place, the first development corresponds to the spine and then the skull, later the rest of the bone structure originates, as is the case of the legs, arms and ribs.

What are the types of bones in the skeletal system?

The diversity of bones that you will see below are classified in such a way by their shape.

Long bones

They are the most predominant bones, taking into account their dimension and length, where bones such as the femur, fibula and tibia can be considered.

Short bones

They are those bones that generally have a cubic shape, so they do not have a great dimension in size. To give you an idea, they can be those that are present on the wrist or the tarsus of the ankle.

Flat bones

They stand out very little in the entire skeletal structure, but are clearly present in the bones that are located in the cranial vault.

Irregular bones

They do not have a clearly defined shape, since they can even develop differently in each human being, as is the case of the jaw or some vertebrae of the spine .

Sesamoid bones

In case you did not know, they have this name because of its comparison with sesame seeds in terms of their shape, since they are the smallest bones that are in the human body. They are generally present in tendons, hands and feet.

How are bones structured?

  • Diaphysis : it is the central part that originates in the long bones.
  • Epiphysis : it is the end of the long bones.
  • Metaphysis : they are the internal areas of the long bones, that is to say; enters the epiphysis and diaphysis.
  • Articular cartilage : it is the cartilage tissue that forms the connection of the bones of the human body, which provides mobility and displacement.
  • Periosteum : it is the membrane of resistant tissue that covers the bones.
  • Medullary cavity : it is the central area of ​​the long bones that is completely empty and is only filled by a yellow bone marrow.
  • Endostium : it is the thin tissue membrane that covers the long bones.

Diseases that affect the skeletal system

Bone diseases:

  • Bone fractures: these are the most common inconveniences, since it is generally produced by a strong blow or severe trauma, which is why a break or break of the bone occurs.
  • Osteoporosis : it is the wear of the bones due to the regular loss of bone density; This is caused by a deficit in mineralization or in the constant disposal of bone proteins.
  • Primary bone cancer: these tumors can occur in any tissue found in the medullary area; but the most regular in origin are in chondrosarcoma and oseosarcoma.

Joint diseases:

Arthritis : it is a condition that mainly attacks humans with advanced age, which can present itself in various ways, such as:

  • Rheumatoid arthritis, which is produced by the autoimmune system, where inflammation of the joints of the feet and hands is the main symptom.
  • Psoriasic arthritis: it is also an inflammatory disease but in the joints that only perform only one movement, as is the case of the elbows and knees.

Why is the skeletal system important to life?

We can already have an idea with everything we have analyzed, but perhaps some doubts remain about its true importance. And the truth is that, after the heart and the brain, which are organs of valuable relevance and necessity for life, the human skeleton is one of the essential systems for the body , since thanks to it the person can carry out movements and maintain good posture.

This means that without the skeletal system within the structure or composition of the human body , regular and simple activities such as walking, running or even sitting would be completely impossible; since the bones of the hand with the joints create the optimal state to be able to do it without limitations or pain.

How to care for the human skeleton?

Good nutrition

As in most cases and recommendations, maintaining a good consumption of foods and beverages, especially those that have a high calcium content, will help each bone and complement that is present in the skeletal system to develop and work without delays .

In case you did not know, calcium is an essential mineral for the maintenance of bones, since they are greatly strengthened to avoid fragility . For adults, they require 1000 milligrams of calcium per day, while people over 50 need slightly more calcium, such as 1200 milligrams per day.

The diet should include foods such as dairy products, salmon, green vegetables, broccoli, soy products and cheese, all of them have a large amount of calcium content. On the other hand, you should not forget the intake of magnesium, copper and zinc , including balanced servings of fruits, lean proteins and whole grains.

In the case of magnesium, the foods that you can consume to boost its levels within the body can be shellfish, nuts, sunflower seeds and dark chocolate. Also, beef and peanuts, as well as shellfish again, have high zinc values. While copper can be found in foods such as lobsters, oysters and tomatoes.

Vitamin intake

Consume vitamin, specifically vitamin D, as it is healthy for the whole body, but even more so for strengthening bones . This vitamin can be consumed through pills or supplements, but it can be included naturally through foods rich in vitamins and minerals or through exposure to the sun for a few minutes.

It is recommended to consume 600 IU of vitamin D per day, but if you are a person within the normal healthy ranges, 400 IU per day will be enough to have an optimal bone system .

Before any election, either feeding, supplementation or sun exposure, it is advisable to consult a specialist doctor to avoid health problems or side effects to the excessive consumption of vitamin D .

Sufficient hydration

For the body to stay healthy, the intake of water is essential for this. Therefore, at least 8 glasses of water a day are recommended. Doing so will allow a good impact not only on the organs, but also on the joints , which acts as a preventive to avoid diseases such as osteoporosis.

Of course, in this case it is not a danger to leave the recommendation, since; Although 8 glasses of water is significant, it will always be allowed to consume as much water as possible during the day, so you should try your best because it is not an easy task in the face of daily activities and occupations.

Control the consumption of salt, caffeine and oils

Although they seem to be normal substances, they turn out to be harmful when consumption is highly excessive, such as salt, soft drinks, caffeine and oils; Since these and others considerably reduce calcium in the bones . But they also have other disadvantages for the body, so it is advisable to avoid them.

To help you with this, it is recommended to consume fewer eggs or if you do, only the whites; and in the case of taking dairy products, that these do not have too much fat content. First of all, it is essential to monitor the nutritional values ​​of the products to be ingested.

Consumption of vitamin A in moderation

Vitamin A is one of the essential supplements to achieve proper bone growth; but when ingested without moderation it can generate a deficit in bone material . Therefore, it is recommended to be attentive to the vitamin values ​​of the products.

In addition, according to some studies have determined that men need more vitamin A than women to achieve a robust bone system, I understand that they should ingest 4000 IU daily of this vitamin, while women only 2500 IU daily

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Hello Readers, I am Nikki Bella a Psychology student. I have always been concerned about human behavior and the mental processes that lead us to act and think the way we do. My collaboration as an editor in the psychology area of ​​Well Being Pole has allowed me to investigate further and expand my knowledge in the field of mental health; I have also acquired great knowledge about physical health and well-being, two fundamental bases that are directly related and are part of all mental health.

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