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Thyroid gland

It can be said that the functions that this gland has and the hormones they secrete are many, practically every process that the human body performs is directly or indirectly related to this gland and the hormones it produces, so talking about all of them would take a good time, therefore, below, you will see other functions of the thyroid.

  • Promotes gastrointestinal health while intervening in the contraction and motility processes of the intestine.
  • Through basal metabolism, it is responsible for regulating body temperature.
  • Promotes the synthesis and utilization of glucose.
  • It helps to use carotenes to form vitamin A, which is important for the proper functioning of the immune system.
  • Regulates cholesterol levels within the body.

Diseases related to the thyroid gland

As you can see, the thyroid gland is very important for the human body, since the hormones it secretes are involved in many of the processes that occur within the body and are essential for leading a healthy life. However, although it is a very important gland, this does not exempt it from suffering from some type of problem, and there are some diseases which affect this gland, and that can have certain serious consequences.


The hyperthyroidism is impaired hormonal segregation function of the thyroid gland, and is characterized by increased levels of thyroid gland hormones produced; that is, it is the increase in thyroid hormones within the body .

The consequences of hyperthyroidism include the increase in the body’s metabolic processes, such as metabolism and heart rate. People who usually suffer from this disease tend to lose weight uncontrollably and very quickly; In addition, they may suffer from symptoms such as exhaustion, rapid heartbeat and other problems more related to metabolism.

In general, the most common known cause of hyperthyroidism is Graves’ disease , however, it can also be the case that it is due to thyroiditis, since the inflammation of the gland causes the rupture of some cells, which releases high levels of thyroid hormones.

When hyperthyroidism is present, it is most likely that other diseases such as thyroiditis or goiter are also present.


Being the opposite of hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism is characterized by the deficiency of thyroid hormones within the body ; In general, those who suffer from hypothyroidism have difficulty generating these hormones, which affects many of the body’s metabolic processes and brings serious health problems.

The main consequences or symptoms of this disease include weight gain for no apparent reason, a decrease in heart rate, muscle weakness, constipation , a decrease in body temperature and little sweating.

In general, Hypothyroidism can influence the appearance of other diseases, mainly heart diseases and others related to metabolism, such as diabetes .

The main causes of this disease are treatment for hyperthyroidism, removal of the thyroid gland, and some cancer treatments, usually those that use radiation.


The thyroiditis is inflammation of the thyroid gland by the action of antibodies in this ; Depending on the cause of the inflammation, this problem can progress to Hyperthyroidism. Inflammation of the thyroid gland is a very painful disease, which requires rest.

The causes for which this gland becomes inflamed can range from the effect of some medication, to autoimmune diseases such as Type I Diabetes. In some cases, it can also occur due to the infection of a virus or bacteria or even due to genetic predisposition.

There is a curious case known as postpartum thyroiditis, which is a thyroiditis that can affect women after childbirth . It is estimated that at least 10% of women who give birth have this problem, making it relatively common.

Thyroid nodules

This is a fairly common problem, which tends to affect even more women than men. Thyroid nodules are small inflammations that occur in a specific area of ​​the thyroid gland ; Unlike goiter or thyroiditis, thyroid nodules do not completely affect the gland, but rather small spots that can vary from place to place.

These nodules can be of two types, those that are totally solid and others that are filled with blood. Each time a nodule occurs, it may be the case that there is a second or even more, since not always a single nodule comes out.

In itself, this problem does not generate any type of symptoms , so in a certain way it can be said that, in some cases, it is harmless. However, there is a risk of hyperthyroidism, since some nodules can grow very large, and cause an increase in the secretion of thyroid hormones. They are generally not carcinogenic, so there is no need to worry that they will progress to something very serious.


Goiter is characterized by being an abnormal enlargement of the size of the thyroid , it should not be confused with thyroiditis since in the case of Goiter there is not always an inflammation.

Ironically, this disease appears due to other thyroid diseases, such as hyperthyroidism, thyroiditis and thyroid nodules. Among the main symptoms that appear, the Goiter stands out for a bulge in the area where the thyroid gland is located; During this disease, the size of the thyroid increases so much that you can see them with the naked eye, since a huge lump forms at the base of the neck.

Depending on the size, the Goiter can cause difficulties when swallowing, it can even make it uncomfortable for the person to breathe . Another key factor is that as it grows, it becomes more difficult to move the neck, since the Goiter produces a feeling of stiffness in the neck area.

Thyroid cancer

Similar to the rest of types of cancer; the thyroid cancer is the result of the appearance of cancer cells in the gland tissues . In general, when this type of cancer exists, it can be accompanied by thyroid nodules, which are carcinogenic; however, this is very rare.

When a thyroid nodule has cancer cells, it usually grows into a huge lump. However, not all lumps are carcinogenic, so if one appears, it is best to go directly to the doctor to examine yourself and rule out any possibility.

It should be noted that identifying a thyroid nodule can be a bit confusing if you are not used to these types of situations. In some cases it is even common to confuse them with a lump caused by other thyroid diseases.

Other related diseases

Those mentioned above are the most common diseases of the thyroid gland, however, there are other diseases which are related to this gland and carry even more risk. Such is the case of type I diabetes, which is directly linked to thyroiditis. Of course, it should be clarified that not all cases of thyroiditis are due to type I diabetes. Other diseases that are related to this gland are Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s disease , both causing thyroid diseases such as hyperthyroidism, thyroiditis and goiter.

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Hello Readers, I am Nikki Bella a Psychology student. I have always been concerned about human behavior and the mental processes that lead us to act and think the way we do. My collaboration as an editor in the psychology area of ​​Well Being Pole has allowed me to investigate further and expand my knowledge in the field of mental health; I have also acquired great knowledge about physical health and well-being, two fundamental bases that are directly related and are part of all mental health.

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