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The transaminases are some of the enzymes that are essential for the good of the organism funcionaminto. Its main function is to stimulate the production of essential amino acids for the development of protein synthesis that takes place in the liver. That is why its values ​​in a blood test are clear indicators of the good or bad functioning of the liver.

As with other enzymes present in the body, it is important that the transaminase levels are optimal.

What are transaminases?

They are known as transaminases to a set of enzymes present in the liver organ . The liver is precisely one of the most important organs of the human body as it fulfills essential functions: glycogen storage, protein synthesis, detoxification of the body, bile formation …

That is why it is essential to have adequate levels of transaminases for the liver to function properly.

Types of transaminases

The following groups of transaminases are differentiated.

  • GOT or AST: this enzyme is present in various organs of the human body, the organ being one of them. Elevated levels in a blood test can indicate cell destruction.
  • GPT or ALT: the enzyme is located mainly in the liver. Its main function is the manufacture of glucose.
  • GGT: it is an enzyme found in the tissues of many organs: heart, brain, pancreas … The highest concentration occurs in liver cells. When the levels are high, it can be an indication of the presence of a certain liver, pancreas or gallbladder disease.

Function of transaminases

The main function of transaminases is to promote the production of certain classes of amino acids . Small protein molecules are necessary for the development of the organism. Although the work takes place inside the cell, it is also released directly into the blood.

Normal values ​​of transaminases

It is important to know what the normal values ​​of transaminases are to determine any type of abnormality.

  • GOT-AST normal values: between 0 and 37 U / L.
  • GPT-ALT normal values: between 0 and 41 U / L.
  • GGT normal values: between 11 and 50 U / L.

healthy lifestyle is essential to maintain normal levels of transaminases . To do this, a varied and balanced diet must be followed, avoiding the consumption of foods rich in fat and alcoholic beverages; of course, physical exercise is essential.

Generally, transaminases help to know the state in which the liver is; it is a very sensitive marker of liver injury.

However, it must be taken into account that abnormal transaminase values ​​are not always directly related to liver disorders . These values ​​can increase as a result of a disease that has developed in other organs of the body, or even as a result of a muscle injury.

High transaminases

In a blood test, transaminase values ​​are considered high when they exceed 40 U / L for men and 34 U / L for women . These values ​​may indicate a certain disorder in the liver organ, of greater or lesser severity.

The main causes that favor the increase of these values ​​are a poor diet and a sedentary lifestyle. Also the excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages, which exerts direct damage to liver cells and, with it, an increase in transaminases.

Causes of high transaminases

When transaminase levels rise suddenly, the cause may be one of the diseases listed below.

Fatty liver

As its name suggests, this disease develops when an excessive amount of fat accumulates in the liver. There are two main types.

  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver : is one whose development is not related to alcohol consumption. There may or may not be inflammation and damage to liver cells.
  • Alcoholic fatty liver: it is that disorder whose direct cause is the excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages. In a high percentage of cases, it is the initial phase of the disease, after which other more serious ones appear, such as hepatitis and cirrhosis .

Hepatitis

Hepatitis is a serious virus that directly affects the organ. There are the following types of viruses.

  • Hepatitis A: is transmitted through contact with contaminated food or drinks, as well as through contact with fecal matter.
  • Hepatitis B: in this case transmission is through sexual intercourse or needles.
  • Hepatitis C: in the case of hepatitis C, it is also transmitted by sharing both syringes and needles, as well as through sexual intercourse.
  • Hepatitis E: the disease is transmitted by mouth contact with feces. In a high percentage of cases, it is caused by contaminated water.

Wilson’s disease

Wilson’s disease is a hereditary disease whose main characteristic is the accumulation of copper in certain organs, such as the liver .

Copper plays a very important role in a wide range of body processes, such as the formation of the bone system or the production of melanin. Copper is absorbed from food and its excess is excreted through bile, a substance that is produced in the liver.

But this is not the case in those with Wilson’s disease. Copper is not removed properly, so it builds up to potentially life-threatening levels.

Liver cancer

Liver cancer is a malignant tumor that affects this organ. Although the direct causes of the disease are not known, there are a series of risk factors that significantly increase the probability of developing it: consuming large amounts of alcohol, suffering from cirrhosis, obesity …

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In relation to the symptoms, the ones that recur most frequently are jaundice and localized pain in the right area of ​​the abdomen. Signs usually appear later in the disease.

Hepatic cirrhosis

Liver cirrhosis is known as the accumulation of scars in the liver, which leads to a malfunction of the organ. It is the last stage of chronic liver disorder .

The main causes of the disease are infection with hepatitis B or C, as well as alcoholism for a long period of time.

How to lower transaminase levels?

In case of high transaminase levels, below we indicate a series of guidelines to reduce them, as long as the anomaly is not related to any disease.

  • Follow a healthy and balanced diet. For this, it is advisable to limit the consumption of foods rich in fat and avoid processed foods.
  • It is so important to consume the right foods to take care of your health, as it is to prepare them correctly; the ideal is steamed, baked or grilled.
  • The hydration is key to help eliminate fat by the liver.
  • Regular moderate physical exercise is also a good way to normalize transaminase values. Just walk 30 minutes a day.

Low transaminases

Low levels of transaminases are considered when they are between 5-31 U / L in the case of women and 5-36 U / L in that of men . Any value below this range may indicate the existence of a certain health disorder.

In a high percentage of cases, low transaminases have their explanation in an unhealthy diet that has led to a lack of nutrients, as well as a urinary infection .

Causes of low transaminases

There are certain diseases that can reduce the levels of transaminases in the blood.

Crohn’s disease

The Crohn ‘s disease is an inflammatory process of chronic that is located in the intestinal tract. It is a recurrent disease, which can occur on certain occasions with prolonged periods of remission.

In relation to the symptoms, these vary depending on the part of the intestines affected by the disorder. The most common are: abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever , swelling, joint pain and rectal abscess.

Celiac Disease

Celiac disease is a disorder that affects the small intestine , greatly altering the body’s absorption of nutrients from food. Those patients affected by this disease have intolerance to the gluten protein , which is present in cereals.

As for the symptoms of the disease, it varies depending on age. In the case of babies, it is common that they do not gain weight and do not develop properly. As for children and adults, the most common signs include diarrhea, stomach pain, weight loss and fatigue for no apparent reason.

Vitamin B6 deficiency

Vitamin B6 is one of the so-called water-soluble vitamins. Its role is very important in a large selection of body functions, such as the production of antibodies or the maintenance of adequate blood sugar levels.

Well, vitamin B6 deficiency is one of the main causes of low transaminases . It is common in pregnant or lactating women, as well as children. They are the population groups that require the greatest amount of protein.

Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C is a viral infection that causes inflammation of the liver organ, with serious consequences in a high percentage of cases. One of its main characteristics is that it is an infection that remains silent for a long period of time; when the first signs begin, the liver is badly damaged.

The main symptoms of hepatitis C are: easy bleeding and bruising, fatigue, poor appetite, jaundice, itchy skin, and weight loss.

Low transaminases in pregnancy

Pregnant women can have certain types of liver disease, the vast majority of which disappear after delivery. The frequency with which these disorders occur in developed countries is very low, but sometimes they can be serious for both the mother and the fetus.

Some of the symptoms that occur regularly, and to which we must pay special attention are: localized pain in the right area of ​​the abdomen, nausea, vomiting and jaundice .

In the presence of these signs it is important to see a doctor as soon as possible. After taking the medical history based on the symptoms presented by the pregnant woman, the doctor will proceed to perform a blood test and an abdominal ultrasound.

In blood tests, one of the main values ​​to be determined are transaminases . Low values ​​of this set of enzymes can indicate a deficiency of vitamin B6, something common during the gestation period.

Other liver enzymes such as bilirubin and alkaline phostase are also being studied . If the values ​​of these enzymes, in addition to transaminases, are higher than normal, it may be an indication of a certain liver disease. During the first trimester of pregnancy, the most frequent recurrence is hyperemesis gravidarum. In the second trimester, intrahepatic cholestasis is a disorder that can develop in pregnant women. And, in the third trimester, acute steatosis of pregnancy.

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Hello Readers, I am Nikki Bella a Psychology student. I have always been concerned about human behavior and the mental processes that lead us to act and think the way we do. My collaboration as an editor in the psychology area of ​​Well Being Pole has allowed me to investigate further and expand my knowledge in the field of mental health; I have also acquired great knowledge about physical health and well-being, two fundamental bases that are directly related and are part of all mental health.

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